English
聯系我們
網站地圖
郵箱
舊版回顧



“嫦娥”奔月的“煩惱” 太空中存在的“腐蝕”問題

文章來源:金屬研究所   發布時間:2019-04-23  【字號:     】  

  浩瀚無垠的宇宙中蘊藏著許多未知的奧秘,它仿佛擁有著巨大的魔力,吸引著人類不斷探索。月球,是人類太空探險的第一步。但由于潮汐鎖定現象,月球圍繞地球的公轉周期與其自轉周期相同,導致人類在地球上始終只能觀測到月球的“正面”。因此,多年以來,人類對月球背面的了解非常有限。直到2019年1月3日,嫦娥四號探測器自主著陸月球背面的馮·卡門撞擊坑內,實現人類首次月背軟著陸,并傳回第一張月球背面的近距離影像。

  但“嫦娥”的奔月之旅其實并不輕松,甚至可謂是困難重重。其中,太空中材料的腐蝕就是令科學家們比較頭疼的問題。

  說到腐蝕,大家可能并不陌生,因為在我們生活中,它每時每刻都在發生。例如:廚房鐵鍋的生銹,碳酸飲料對牙齒的腐蝕,街道護欄的風化開裂等等。可以說,腐蝕無時無刻不在影響著我們的生活。但有人可能會問,太空既然是高真空環境、沒有水的存在,航天器應該不會像地球上那樣腐蝕吧?但令人意想不到的是,與“溫順”的地球環境相比,真實的太空對航天器的“外衣”甚至威脅更大。

  舉一個真實的例子,“和平號”空間站作為美俄國際空間站合作計劃的一部分,是蘇聯建造的第一個軌道空間站(蘇聯解體后歸俄羅斯)。據統計,它實際在軌工作的十多年時間里,共發生近2000處故障,其中70%的外體遭到腐蝕。

  那么,究竟是什么原因造成太空中航天材料的腐蝕失效呢?“嫦娥”奔月途中,到底會面臨怎樣嚴峻的考驗呢?我們首先從太空中的環境說起。

  其實,太空的真實環境遠沒有科幻電影中描述的那般美好,到處都存在著人類肉眼所看不見的宇宙輻射。它既包括宇宙大爆炸后所殘留的熱輻射,也包括其他天體向外釋放的電磁波、高能粒子甚至是宇宙射線。它們對人體的危害可以說是致命的。但由于地球磁場與大氣層對宇宙輻射的偏折和吸收作用,才能保證人類在地球上的正常生活。可是,一旦脫離兩者的保護,完全暴露在這種強輻射環境中,即便是穿著厚重的宇航服,也不能完全避免宇宙輻射對人體的傷害。當然,面對太空中如此高強度的輻射,航天器也會“深受其害”。

  其中,太陽所釋放的紫外線輻射是引起航天器腐蝕失效的原因之一。盡管紫外線只占太陽光的5%左右,但是能量卻很大。太空中,由于缺少地球磁場及大氣層的“保護屏障”,航天器表面的高分子材料在吸收紫外線后會引發聚合物的自我氧化、降解。另外,紫外線中的單個光子所具有的能量足以破壞聚合物間的化學鍵,使其斷裂、交聯,從而導致聚合物材料性能的急劇下降。因此,為了盡可能的削弱宇宙輻射對航天器的影響,人類航天任務的發射甚至會刻意避開太陽耀斑活動頻繁的時間周期。

  此外,當航天器剛剛脫離地球表面大氣層的保護,首先接觸的便是低地球軌道環境(距離地球200-700km),該區域所處的殘余大氣中,氧含量約占總組分的80%。眾所周知,氧元素是造成材料腐蝕加速的重要條件。而在太陽短波輻射的光致分解作用下,氧分子轉變為高活性的原子氧,由于處于高真空及極低的氣體總壓狀態下,氧原子與其他粒子發生碰撞的幾率很小,導致氧原子很難再次復合成分子態。當高速運行的航天器與原子氧發生劇烈的摩擦、碰撞時,航天器表面的聚合物材料會發生高溫氧化反應,使其電學、光學以及機械性能等方面發生退化,甚至會引起明顯的剝蝕效應,嚴重影響航天器的運行安全。

  在“嫦娥”的太空旅行中,除了要面臨宇宙輻射及原子氧的威脅外,還需要接受極為“苛刻”的溫度挑戰。自宇宙大爆炸起,太空中的溫度便開始逐漸降低,在經歷了150多億年的演變后,目前的太空正處于極寒的環境中,平均溫度只有約-270.3℃。并且,真空環境中,由于缺少空氣的傳熱和散熱,航天器表面受陽光直接照射的一面,其溫度將高達100℃以上,而陽光照射不到的一面,溫度則可低至-200℃。這種極端的溫度條件和大幅度的冷熱交變會影響材料的應力,并可能造成航天器“外衣”的斷裂、分層甚至脆化,縮短其安全服役壽命。

  通過上面的介紹,我們可以發現,在如此復雜的太空環境中,航天器的腐蝕根本無法避免。并且,有關數據顯示,一架航天飛機的維修成本甚至遠高于其制作成本和發射成本。因此,采用科學的手段抑制航天器在太空中的腐蝕問題勢在必行。

  首先便是選擇和發展耐熱、耐極低溫、耐熱震、抗疲勞、抗腐蝕的高性能材料,世界各國的科學家也正為此努力探索。此外,結合不同材料的用途及其實際服役環境,采用合適的表面處理技術顯得更為重要。因為性能優異的防護涂層不僅可以提高航天材料的功能性,包括耐高溫、隔熱、抗腐蝕、抗氧化、抗輻射等,同時也可以延長航天器的使用壽命,節省維修成本。然而,與地面裝備表面防護不同的是,由于有機涂層在真空環境中會出現放氣、老化脫落等一系列問題,航天材料一般不會使用有機涂層進行防腐,而主要采用的表面技術包括化學/電化學沉積、化學/電化學氧化、無機涂層以及特種薄膜制備等等。

  鎂合金,作為地球上最輕的金屬結構材料,擁有比強度高、導電性強、電磁屏蔽性好等優點,在航天領域的使用上具有先天的優勢。為了實現減重的目的,我們熟知的神州、天宮、嫦娥等系列航天器中,均大量使用鎂合金。

  以此次發射的“嫦娥四號”探測器為例,其中,探月雷達、月球車巡視器、著陸器上許多重要電子設備的箱體結構所采用的就是鎂合金,主要利用其減重、導電及優異的電磁屏蔽性能,可以有效地削弱外界電磁場對核心電路系統的干擾。但鎂合金化學性質活潑,耐蝕性差,甚至在地面存放期間便會出現嚴重的腐蝕。因此,必須采用合理的表面處理方式,在滿足其導電性及電磁屏蔽性能的基礎上,有效提高其耐腐蝕能力。

  中國科學院金屬研究所在這方面做了很多工作,科研團隊自主研發的鎂合金鍍層具有防腐、導電、電磁屏蔽等多功能性,滿足了航天器若干的使用要求,并在天宮、嫦娥等多個型號的航天器上使用。

  “嫦娥”的奔月成功只是人類探索太空的階段性勝利,宇宙中仍有無數未知的奧秘等待著人類去揭曉。在未來的探索道路中,可能會暴露出更多太空中的“腐蝕”問題。讓我們攜手并進,砥礪前行,一步一步追尋屬于我們的“太空夢”。




(責任編輯:侯茜)

附件:

專題推薦

相關新聞


© 1996 - 中國科學院 版權所有 京ICP備05002857號  京公網安備110402500047號  聯系我們

地址:北京市三里河路52號 郵編:100864

百姓彩票www.zuan333.com www.524282.com | www.650049.com | www.zp67.com | www.56709.com | www.255548.cc | www.373148.com | www.03636.com | www.579427.com | www.681125.com | 21155.com | www.uj21.com | www.t04.shop | www.449800.com | 109145.com | www.819795.com | www.793190.com | www.du44.com | www.bx05.com | 562326.com | 967413.com | www.984700.com | www.719206.com | www.688675.com | 29003.cc | www.9007.in | 198910.com | 384163.com | 豪彩VIPwww.966019.com | www.779381.com | www.sv05.com | www.678998.com | www.512795.com | www.9263.xyz | www.407676.com | www.752623.com | www.729922.com | www.459991.com | www.331574.com | www.77598.com | www.555227.com | www.817889.com | 网易彩票www.069wy.com | www.uj68.com | www.19377.cc | www.5483.vip | www.0377.com | www.134545.com | www.275320.com | www.968340.com | www.997760.com | www.4620.cc | www.797178.com | www.971642.com | 456039.com | www.vn40.com | www.av89.com | 中彩网www.91233y.com | www.631019.com | www.220680.com | www.151532.com | www.398516.com | www.870679.com | www.675917.com | www.cai7633.com | www.167594.com | www.242729.com | www.135.cc | www.6266.vip | 922870.com | www.740883.com | www.115007.com | www.rj53.com | www.953344.com | www.494352.com | 485901.com | www.152048.com | www.739947.com | www.872911.com | www.0330.top | 499887.com | www.g88.org | www.jh48.com | www.92522.com | www.9159.org | www.28843.com | www.98940.com | www.502969.com | www.48jf.com | www.1wy.com | www.su50.com | www.ly04.com | www.055682.com | www.224728.com | www.397600.com | www.565393.com | www.599757.com | www.863251.com | 532713.com | www.19hh.com | www.uv23.com | www.5191.club | www.21lr.com | 227207.com | www.082192.com | www.723332.com | www.212786.com | www.61qy.com | www.978825.com | www.261581.com | www.5458.vip | 664531.com | 142727.com | www.854495.com | www.629312.com | www.3701.com | www.75br.com | www.d43.club | www.629846.com | www.84446.cc | www.660607.com | 539716.com | www.911069.com | www.225101.com | www.994844.com | www.861100.com | www.979590.com | www.739540.com | www.539310.com | www.224011.com | www.854596.com | www.19024.com | www.025401.com | www.019581.com | www.170807.com | www.396591.com | 743165.com | www.ab78.com | www.hp17.com | www.46qy.com | www.313.net | www.091597.cc | www.300730.com | www.456296.com | www.990458.com | www.761710.com | 828039.com | 974603.com | 659154.com | www.59zb.com | www.910502.com | www.23xc.com | www.924365.com | www.875413.com | www.127147.com | www.281757.com | www.182045.com | www.500060.cc | www.579816.com | www.813911.com | www.k26.online | www.2933.com | www.279553.com | 579134.com | www.qa59.com | www.6tt.cc | www.76165.com | www.343494.com | www.970130.com | 759171.com | www.63ct.com | www.196530.com | www.095730.com | www.788742.com | www.e95.top | www.00hz.com | www.5469.vip | www.06176.com | www.55073.com | www.153932.com | www.936581.com | www.951545.com | www.970266.com | 80001.cc | www.4726.org | www.xz01.com | 032753.com | www.638009.com | www.547848.com | www.cp0995.com | www.81nz.com | www.241865.com | nh35.com | www.300591.com | www.812863.com | www.966997.com | www.971413.com | www.jl80.com | www.985249.com | www.703316.com | www.050929.com | www.bv00.com | www.js0.cc | 270070.com | www.93771.cc | www.076807.com | www.975411.com | www.963653.com | www.619610.com | www.40953.com | www.316977.com | www.120969.com | 334335.com | 6550.biz | 629257.com | 260849.com | 6979.biz | 209340.com | www.6668.space | www.857.mobi | www.610378.com | 033546.com | www.576296.com | 397471.com | 630532.com | 579743.com | 870635.com | www.qi45.com | www.as72.com | www.fm69.com | www.uk87.com | www.0808.date | www.580106.com | 071221.com | www.44ov.com | www.881430.com | www.688243.com | www.608359.com | www.199165.com | www.083730.com | www.255183.com | www.362330.com | 亿发彩票www.901327.com | www.643218.com | www.973719.com | www.225018.com | www.51ml.com | www.939183.com | www.4833.cn | www.7280.vip | www.055762.com | www.037358.com | www.38137.cc | www.500012.cc | www.603197.com | www.682823.com | 930795.com | www.0222.cc | www.99923.cc | www.215072.com | www.145006.com | www.323481.com | www.790902.com | 99695.com | www.wg59.com | www.is62.com | www.05bk.com | www.58tl.com | www.59if.com | www.361883.com | www.068335.com | 爱心彩www.axc2.com | 731714.com | www.392562.com | www.51813.cc | 579075.com | www.622905.com | www.062684.com | www.892768.com | 速彩网www.679000.com | www.457826.com | 826532.com | www.659751.com | www.56839.cc | www.025445.com | www.064779.com | www.576043.com | www.11274.com | www.86888.cc | www.017249.com | www.203901.com | www.272236.com | www.583939.com | www.469839.com | www.738867.com | www.087068.com | www.65od.com | www.911775.com | www.112821.com | www.089059.com | www.bf11.com | www.194519.com | www.371982.com | www.638220.com | www.962849.com | www.830990.com | www.699714.com | www.592210.com | www.479730.com | www.540286.com | www.957749.com | www.833055.com | www.913952.com | www.765880.com | 574543.com | 755548.com | 188643.com | 500彩票www.303483.com | 天朝彩票www.hd5658.com | 博亿彩票www.679by.com | 864666.com | 500彩票www.50052f.com | www.ml26.com | www.px08.com | www.62jt.com | www.38002.com | www.304081.com | www.993271.com | www.895537.com | www.82yp.com | 640005.com | www.636646.com | www.8311.in | www.095162.com | www.072798.com | www.058069.com | www.018950.com | www.625175.com | www.958802.com | 667473.com | 478803.com | 064422.com | 967454.com | www.30ve.com | www.65029.com | www.232491.com | www.500996.com | 新世界www.616777a.com | 500彩票www.401267.com | www.tc58.com | www.gj69.com | www.fi58.com | www.qw20.com | 826279.com | www.46.cx | 126彩票网www.lu126.com | 746811.com | www.1290.cc | www.31159.com | www.07966.com | www.163224.com | www.088789.com | www.158929.com | www.265716.cc | www.334394.com | www.386418.com | www.456386.com | www.552907.com | 707678.com | 509201.com | www.71yb.com | www.uj77.com | 鑫彩网www.xcw866.com | 907227.com | www.zf03.com | www.oq38.com | www.2268.in | 众乐彩票www.239544.com | 614603.com | 630996.com | www.004657.com | www.240550.com | www.118647.com | www.629700.com | 838364.com | 473100.com | www.m41.cn | www.dv04.cc | www.50tc.com | www.35nj.com | www.54ow.com | www.0966.com | www.38273.cc | www.0537.xyz | www.3306.cn | www.2348.in | www.28519.cc | www.3678.org | www.1190.pro | www.2361.wang | www.072116.com | www.777810.com | www.9965.top | www.vg61.com | www.807765.com | www.297075.com | 386716.com | www.926728.com | www.80lp.com | 655969.com | www.956067.com | www.422121.com | www.024198.com | www.988366.com | www.9439.top | www.te64.com | www.631860.com | 375801.com | 951415.com | 010345.com | 500万彩票www.5441z.com | www.216.net | www.4831.cn | www.07zo.com | www.6096.cm | www.108539.com | www.095061.com | www.701094.com | www.396727.com | www.897712.com | 大福彩票www.df39.com | www.111.in | www.6675.top | www.915.website | www.127497.com | www.127385.com | www.973221.com | 497009.com | www.993422.com | www.975666.com | www.960422.com | www.151930.com | www.116923.com | www.074068.com | www.94iz.com | www.026157.com | www.137315.com | www.55864.com | www.520412.com | www.752608.com | www.736433.com | www.949724.com | www.878925.com | www.bg08.cc | www.62ki.com | www.2352.biz | www.16204.com | www.f22.net | 彩多多www.78949z.com | www.134678.com | www.381.biz | 9051.biz | www.511285.com | www.365339.cc | www.4849.wang | www.491949.com | www.455583.com | www.701867.com | www.870912.com | 643636.com | 610215.com | www.k9666.com | 136880.com | 323767.com | www.44495.cc | www.35705.com | www.lv06.com | www.w82.com | www.86227.cc | www.639154.com | 98524.cc | www.385109.com | www.030741.com | www.955643.com | 479504.com | www.3817.me | www.362468.com | www.8077.xyz | www.813408.com | 486481.com | www.950412.com | www.752192.com | www.356192.com | www.610850.com | 4986.biz | www.935163.com | www.912222.com | www.740522.com | www.867903.com | www.573112.com | 232817.com | www.sx07.com | www.6704.shop | www.2322.com | www.on17.com | www.31ma.com | 福彩www.86267m.com | www.152227.com | www.517139.com | www.578563.com | www.651303.com | www.629949.com | www.593644.com | www.rb13.cc | www.ye25.com | 大赢家彩票平台www.130603.com | 024178.com | www.805863.com | www.973640.com | www.978920.com | www.738228.com | www.921169.com | 06ld.com | www.744099.com | www.102270.com | www.0913.in | www.27tq.com | 908428.com | www.37225.com | www.805884.com | www.779090.com | 467224.com | 6052.biz | 028624.com | www.35pf.com | 97344.com | www.116867.com | www.km31.com | www.rt60.com | www.16363.com | www.90sa.com | www.10fr.com | www.0367.me | www.54jb.com | 268095.com | 986224.com | 992287.com | 768969.cc | 凤凰彩票www.77803s.com | 762848.com | 鑫彩网www.xcw866.com | www.8035.cm | 224793.com | www.367608.com | www.672522.com | www.61977.cc | www.509298.com | www.615323.com | www.300221.com | www.685686.cc | www.861323.com | 964519.com | 大赢家彩票www.5086m.com | 409178.com | 122618.com | www.hl81.com | www.43186.com | www.447655.com | 551239.com | 938796.com | www.248978.com | 366876.com | www.037896.com | www.17174.cc | www.nt12.com | 566480.com | www.pb71.com | www.196.tv | www.0352.date | www.020284.com | www.237263.com | www.7023.cc | www.245230.com | www.231499.com | 604448.com | www.633342.com | www.664580.com | www.61938.com | www.13190.com | 2255.cc | 388716.com | www.431002.com | www.167085.com | www.936691.com | www.53vn.com | 877315.com | www.878647.com | www.623981.com | www.952413.com | www.566971.com | www.53696.cc | www.356147.com | www.7448.in | 728367.com | www.34643.com | www.495.cn | 448669.com | www.659851.com | www.cp1148.com | www.dy21.com | www.cp810.cc | 35029.com | www.ww31.com | www.wk18.com | www.s82.top | www.zk31.com | 199463.com | www.l05.net | www.025930.com | www.1826.org | www.04077.com | www.47wa.com | 06dk.com | www.987430.com | www.901939.com | 158424.com | www.881063.com | www.507918.com | www.791524.com | 957324.com | www.1864.xyz | www.91760.com | www.158702.com | www.872654.com | www.9040.in | 947710.com | www.354511.com | www.9640.tv | www.137467.com | www.2627.pw | www.34571.com | www.266853.com | www.722712.com | www.711520.com | www.766304.com | www.554916.com | www.325555.cc | www.915116.com | www.666283.com | www.688767.com | www.506577.com | www.394272.com | www.953904.com | www.785985.com | www.938330.com | www.576821.com | 567041.com | www.52111.com | www.086288.com | www.076233.com | www.9020.org | www.ni7.cc | www.034931.com | www.43807.com | 350401.com | www.191215.com | 89234.cc | www.758785.com | www.525999.cc | www.217286.com | www.194885.com | www.8513.net | www.27nl.com | www.433.cm | www.hm68.com | dp0.cc | 984422.com | 029056.com | www.972113.com | www.693365.com | www.526690.com | 561601.com | 彩宝www.cb5588.com | 5271.biz | www.66oq.com | www.790713.com | www.003472.com | www.088641.com | www.060929.com | www.984394.com | www.947525.com | www.778580.com | www.593176.com | www.330903.com | www.777460.cc | www.530302.com | 732201.com | 739437.com | www.43586.com | www.028.cm | www.08wq.com | 978534.com | www.967291.com | www.706075.com | www.625365.com | www.845785.com | 086767.com | 948951.com | 610269.com | www.812177.com | 25507.com | 686674.com | www.736291.com | 329812.com | www.902650.com | www.94552.com | www.45kb.com | www.7327.loan | www.019342.com | 356905.com | www.766154.com | www.566354.com | www.45633.cc | www.35003.com | www.267592.com | www.334537.com | www.828913.com | www.779795.com | www.163497.com | 63248.com | www.pp73.com | www.wj57.com | 493789.com | 615725.com | www.219648.com | www.13wb.com | 279507.com | 447594.com | www.758108.com | www.324358.com | 331445.com | www.770022.com | www.9393.me | www.pn66.com | 791035.com | 630327.com | www.vs20.com | www.cp971.cc | www.985010.com | www.691032.com | www.910730.com | www.744459.com | 103556.com | www.515101.com | www.396440.com | www.355497.com | www.612501.com | www.817381.com | www.dd52.com | 087091.com | 99855.com | www.19826.com | www.095908.com | www.101910.com | www.191553.com | www.613291.com | www.300082.cc | 103080.com | 537395.com | www.101655.com | www.2981.win | www.933682.com | www.190330.com | www.789149.com | www.990824.com | www.699301.com | www.897632.com | www.92938.cc | 503722.com | www.570101.com | www.md09.com | www.390020.com | 6373.biz | 059395.com | 331471.com | www.973224.com | www.781643.com | www.560860.com | www.691272.com | www.750470.com | www.934788.com | 027014.com | 78uy.com | www.965745.com | www.231.in | www.043356.com | www.235522.com | www.145166.com | www.850738.com | 949248.com | www.33tp.com | 994138.cc | 017260.com | www.91506.com | www.789233.com | www.771269.com | www.822788.com | www.568039.com | 840007.com | www.97rh.cc | www.28711.cc | www.554049.com | www.04374.com | www.464087.com | www.759917.com | 546666.com | 377391.com | www.968721.com | www.692652.com | www.23ic.com | www.06cm.com | www.63qg.com | www.pk05.com | www.622233.com | xg64.com | 996884.com | 238015.com | www.cp03.com | www.333286.com | www.604890.com | www.739214.com | www.95635.cc | www.727101.com | www.332985.com | www.330902.com | www.08657.com | www.659.mobi | www.416342.com | www.53hk.com | www.cai6262.com | 528898.com | 云博彩票www.05883.cc | 509259.com | 网易彩票www.9356h.com | www.cp577.cc | www.59912.cc | www.16893.com | www.35wv.com | 40hi.com | www.36lf.com | www.5825.top | www.3000.cx | www.533823.com | www.939239.com | www.894809.com | www.626953.com | www.363558.com | www.811516.com | 双彩网www.179012.com | www.032023.com | www.677716.com | www.573130.com | www.845554.com | 005536.com | www.823059.com | www.920735.com | www.712338.com | www.552702.com | www.325332.com | www.067298.com | www.yd48.com | 883589.com | 748731.com | www.725825.com | www.652602.com | www.49oi.com | www.128012.com | www.669493.com | www.28931.cc | www.611141.com | www.507526.com | www.097690.com | www.050950.com | www.111912.com | www.qo95.com | www.683928.com | www.662717.com | 500万彩票www.35155f.com | 570995.com--765518.com | 350021.com | www.735209.com | www.898982.com | www.617587.com | www.917018.com | www.wb80.com | www.792137.com | www.66559.com | www.990596.com | 927970.com--163a.com | 690271.com | www.975893.com | 244122.com | www.798788.com | www.642234.com | www.729666.com | www.92335.cc | www.057329.com | www.796010.com | www.940040.com | www.959726.com | www.64zx.com | 21te.com | www.328240.com | 356003.com | www.906809.com | 051670.com | cai6607.com | www.865942.com | www.400501.com | www.656518.com | www.795276.com | 976504.com | www.638.la | www.13nf.com | 213444.com | www.470369.com | www.948549.com | www.509133.com | www.14zt.com | www.936333.com | www.553316.com | www.630403.com | www.90rs.com | www.xg33.com | 236144.com | www.cai9996.com | 70911.com | www.90130.com | www.848832.com | 789436.com | www.a81.cn | www.kb3.cc | www.217023.com | 99彩票www.331277.com | www.916077.com | www.526126.com | www.153832.com | 326296.com | www.945426.com | 310611.com | www.773629.com | 609751.com | www.920088.com | www.428736.com | www.9129.net | www.xq93.com | 481012.com | www.995858.com | 378895.com | www.437198.com | www.uu62.com | www.707720.com | www.239977.com | 鑫彩网www.xcw866.com | www.953324.com | www.262122.com | www.mz82.com | www.10052.com | www.521407.cc | www.629700.com | www.769525.com | www.52911.cc | www.170395.com | www.057908.com | www.q98.cc | www.062758.com | www.1060.org | www.815955.com | www.815785.com | www.268615.com | 452153.com | www.116.hk | www.kx3.com | www.qq01.com | 天天彩票www.7782m.com | www.zp89.com | 593219.com | www.r60.org | www.979463.com | www.379956.com | www.679383.com | www.599021.com | www.3652.cm | www.cb96.com | www.137.mobi | www.178941.com | www.632621.com | www.889828.com | www.801085.com | www.911969.com | www.594260.com | www.912932.com | www.833557.com | www.502195.com | PK彩票www.8499d.com | www.42655.com | www.32666.cc | www.0222.biz | 9697.biz | 429075.com | www.975426.com | www.700062.cc | www.cai9.com | www.8929.com | www.iy63.com | 279785.com | 048843.com | 870027.com | www.186.cx | www.507323.com | www.187078.com | 182911.com | 289878.cc | www.899424.com | www.567080.com | www.719357.com | www.449885.com | www.169575.com | www.587589.com | www.157087.com | www.32510.com | www.362443.com | www.029655.com | www.kq53.com | www.264811.com | www.177415.com | www.jo54.com | www.pl75.com | 775171.com | www.1136.net | 087047.com | www.829171.com | www.737736.com | www.841577.com | www.780900.com | www.778505.com | www.839754.com | www.763505.com | www.93690.com | www.e17.biz | 828681.com | www.815628.com | www.554629.com | www.087938.com | www.2339.in | www.cai2225.com | 021051.com | 77411.com | www.883202.com | www.943517.com | www.508017.com | www.086299.com | www.89ay.com | www.44cr.com | 爱彩www.00ac.com | 9071.com | www.773934.com | www.358624.com | www.792700.com | www.494403.com | www.883605.com | www.644622.com | www.855861.com | 193524.com | 287356.cc | www.260362.com | www.fw30.com | www.866170.com | www.784177.com | www.hk11.com | www.53ok.com | www.gb71.com | 779545.com | www.844608.com | www.756258.com | www.886193.com | www.791056.com | www.389056.com | www.098870.com | www.142340.com | www.172163.com | www.086041.com | www.311596.com | www.273912.cc | www.301633.com | www.538722.com | www.189541.com | www.11032.cc | www.96846.com | www.1163.pw | www.fu.cc | 064997.com | www.737107.com | www.272362.com | www.881661.com | www.947448.com | www.046299.com | 205780.com | www.762798.com | www.5194.cc | www.962119.com | www.60546.com | 958140.com | www.2200.tv | www.233991.com | www.050656.com | www.4246.org | www.429.in | www.0722.bid | www.93fq.com | www.591955.com | www.966908.com | www.512499.com | www.378303.com | www.301214.com | www.841305.com | 045199.com | www.863294.com | 033876.com | 638563.com | www.658002.com | www.5064.cc | www.846690.com | www.6855.cn | 易彩网www.99638j.com | www.956182.com | www.262859.com | www.49663.com | www.017717.com | www.1og.com | www.kq29.com | www.70co.com | www.1nq.com | 85432.com | 126084.com | www.885496.com | 550633.com | www.768202.com | www.625202.com | www.751422.com | www.277151.com | www.079225.com | www.8872.vip | www.57yd.com | www.hj33.com | 31456.cc | www.893456.cc | www.635385.com | www.957341.com | www.632717.com | www.691282.com | www.966945.com | www.511191.com | www.561371.com | www.18195.cc | www.6vz.com | 7975.biz | www.353521.com | www.813470.com | www.591594.com | www.828685.com | 383673.com | www.558037.com | www.11007.cc | 034234.com | 07814.com | www.809009.com | www.38556.cc | www.059249.com | www.7739.cn | www.062871.com | www.88nu.com | 627329.com | www.901669.com | www.387855.com | www.133679.com | www.593442.com | www.423470.com | www.723956.com | www.981204.com | www.581390.com | 800228.com | www.910528.com | www.88278.com | 011051.com | 862505.com | www.739077.com | www.3832.in | www.920966.com | www.77330.com | 926558.com | www.764966.com | www.618638.com | www.2718.club | www.381773.com | 124418.com | www.gv7.com | 967401.com | 480369.com | www.932072.com | 366473.com | www.201098.com | www.fw44.cc | www.687997.com | www.221245.com | 787811.com | www.650691.com | www.68487.com | www.640.xyz | 067769.com | www.083109.com | www.j23.cc | www.692422.com | 073082.com | www.641708.com | www.662129.com | www.470100.com | www.004782.com | www.e91.me | www.982270.com | www.346248.com | www.032301.com | 358490.com | www.wg98.cc | www.93ek.com | www.km47.com | 鑫亿彩www.196109.com | www.ff53.com | www.yd93.com | www.1164.pw | www.009164.com | www.4732.vip | www.o24.net | www.62331.cc | www.2910.com | www.az08.com | www.gj56.com | 282861.com | www.739335.com | www.968020.com | 817357.com | www.566339.com | www.wp26.com | 438844.com | 138777.com | www.900432.com | www.499628.com | www.95ng.com | www.c14.com | 364920.com | www.cp000.com | 307790.com | www.890358.com | www.512168.com | www.243459.com | www.215015.com | www.96uz.com | 454020.com | www.900368.com | www.648166.com | www.0319